United Philanthropy Forum supports the continued full enforcement of current law that prohibits 501(c)(3) charitable organizations from endorsing, opposing or contributing to political candidates and engaging in partisan campaign activities—also known as the “Johnson Amendment.” We are troubled by recent proposals in Washington to weaken or repeal this longstanding protection in the federal tax code.
Where We Stand
- Forum Statement on Johnson Amendment (February 2018)
- Forum Statement on Johnson Amendment (March 2017)
- News release
- Statement for the record submitted to House Oversight and Government Reform Committee
- Statement on one year anniversary of President Trump's first National Prayer Breakfast
President's Executive Order
Some of our colleagues have also responded:
Community Letter in Support of Nonpartisanship
The Forum signed the Community Letter in Support of Nonpartisanship to present a united front to preserve the protections in the current law. Forum members who also signed the letter include:
- Arizona Grantmakers Forum
- Associated Grant Makers
- Colorado Association of Funders
- Connecticut Council for Philanthropy
- Council of Michigan Foundations
- Council of New Jersey Grantmakers
- Florida Philanthropic Network
- Forefront (IL)
- Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees
- Grantmakers for Effective Organizations
- Grantmakers of Oregon and Southwest Washington
- Grantmakers of Western Pennsylvania
- Iowa Council of Foundations
- Kansas Association of Community Foundations
- League of California Community Foundations
- Minnesota Council on Foundations
- New Mexico Association of Grantmakers
- PEAK Grantmaking
- Philanthropy California (a joint initiative of Northern California Grantmakers, San Diego Grantmakers, and Southern California Grantmakers)
- Philanthropy for Active Civic Engagement
- Philanthropy New York
- Philanthropy Northwest
- Philanthropy Ohio
- Philanthropy Southwest
- Philanthropy West Virginia
- Washington Regional Association of Grantmakers
What It Means for the Philanthropic Sector
According to the Council on Foundations, if the Johnson Amendment were repealed, 501(c)(3) organizations could become entities that are given tax-deductible donations for the purpose of participating in the electoral process, and donors would be completely shielded from disclosure—hindering transparency. Because donors could deduct any contributions, as well as shield their donations from disclosure, it would create an incentive for people to switch from giving money to PACs and super PACs (which are required to identify their donors) to 501(c)(3)s.
501(c)(3)s would be able to participate in influencing elections without disclosing their donors as long as “no substantial part of the activities of which is carrying on propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislation.” (NOTE: some estimates would limit this number to 10-20% of their budgets, while others have argued that as long as less than half of an organization’s budget was used for political activity, that would satisfy the “no substantial part” test—but the IRS has never defined this or assigned a percentage). Effectively, this would completely open the door to endorsing or opposing specific political candidates, while still maintaining restrictions for charities to lobby on behalf of issues and legislation.
As some 501(c)(3) organizations spend millions, and even billions, of dollars every year, this could result in exorbitant amounts of dollars being used to influence the electoral process without American taxpayers being able to scrutinize which parties are behind the contributions.
Furthermore, private foundation CEOs, staffs and boards could find themselves feeling pressured to not only endorse political candidates at local, state and federal levels but to support them financially, draining resources that would otherwise be going to charitable purposes.
Private Foundation Self-Defense Exception
According to a determination by the Council on Foundations, it is legally permissible for private foundations to lobby on legislation related to the Johnson Amendment, under the self-defense exception. Private foundations are barred by law from lobbying with a few exceptions, and one such exception is the self-defense exception. As described by the Alliance for Justice, the self-defense exception allows a private foundation to communicate with legislators to express an opinion about any legislation that “could affect the organization’s existence, powers, duties, tax-exempt status, or the deductibility of contributions to the organization.” It is the Council on Foundations’ position that any proposed legislation that would repeal or modify the Johnson Amendment would directly affect the powers and duties of a private foundation or other exempt organization.
As noted by the Alliance for Justice, the Johnson Amendment, named after Lyndon B. Johnson, was a 1954 amendment to the tax code. It prohibits 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organizations from participating in political campaigns (specifically, supporting or opposing a candidate). The purpose of the rule was to prevent tax-deductible money from being used to support or oppose candidates for public office. The Johnson Amendment does not prohibit all electoral activity, and 501(c)(3) organizations may still actively participate in the election process.
As background, then-Senator Lyndon Johnson introduced the amendment, purportedly motivated by activities of charities allied to one of his opponents during his 1954 primary election. A charitable organization formed in opposition to the New Deal, the Committee for Constitutional Government, launched a campaign that suggested that a vote for the incumbent (Johnson) was a vote for socialism in Washington. The campaign, which was both unusual and initially a threat to Johnson, resulted in Johnson questioning the legality of the committee’s actions. Upon learning that those actions were legal, Johnson introduced the amendment on July 2, 1954. The amendment was enacted without any committee hearings or floor discussion.
According to Tax Notes, published by the nonpartisan, nonprofit Tax Analysts organization, the Johnson Amendment was part of a much larger debate going on in the country at the time about charities and their political activity. Two years before the Johnson Amendment was introduced, the House established a panel to investigate whether charities were "using their resources for purposes other than the purposes for which they were established," with a special focus on political activity. Two years later, the House convened a follow-up panel, known as the Reece Committee. In its final conclusions, made almost simultaneously with Johnson's amendment, the committee advocated for "the complete exclusion of political activity" regarding charities. "We cannot see any reason why any public funds should be used when any political impact may result," the committee wrote.
Bills in the 115th Congress
Three bills introduced in the 115th Congress which would have adversely affect the Johnson Amendment but were voted down:
- H.R. 172, introduced by Rep. Walter Jones (R-NC), would have completely repealed the Johnson Amendment. There would have bene few restrictions on 501(c)(3) organizations using money to support political campaigns, and they would have bene able to shield donors from transparency.
- H.R. 781 and S. 264, identical bills introduced by Rep. Steve Scalise (R-LA) and Sen. Jim Lankford (R-OK), sought to create a “carve-out” for 501(c)(3) organizations to speak about the political process. However, in the current landscape after Citizens United, where political spending is a form of protected speech under the First Amendment, these bills could have paved the way for additional money to flow from charities into electoral activity and could have left the sector just as vulnerable to abuse and corruption as a complete repeal of the Johnson Amendment.
Read the perspectives of the Forum’s colleague organizations on this issue:
- Council on Foundations
- Independent Sector
- National Council of Nonprofits
- Keep Partisan Politics Out of the Nonprofit Sector- Op-Ed in The Hill by Tim Delaney, National Council of Nonprofits and Vikki Spruill, Council on Foundations
- The House tax bill unleashes a dangerous avalanche of campaign cash
- The Johnson Amendment In 5 Questions And Answers- Overview from NPR
- Poll: Americans Support the Johnson Amendment- Results from a March 6-8, 2017 public poll of American voters regarding their views on the Johnson Amendement commissioned by Independent Sector.
This page includes information provided by the Alliance for Justice, Council on Foundations, Independent Sector and National Council of Nonprofits.